the goodness of the land favored the aggrandizement of particular individuals, and thus created faction which proved a fertile source of ruin. it also invited invasion. accordingly attica, from the poverty of its soil enjoying from a very remote region freedom from faction, never changed its inhabitants. and here is no inconsiderable exemplification of my assertion that the migrations were the cause of there being no correspondent growth in other parts. the most powerful victims of war or faction from the rest of hellas took refuge with the athenians, as a safe retreat; and at an early period, becoming naturalized, swelled the already large population of the city, to such a height that attica became at last too small to hold them; and they had to send out colonies to ionia.

there is also another circumstance which contributes not a little to my conviction of the weakness of ancient times. before the trojan war there is no indication of any common action in hellas, nor indeed of the universal prevalence of the name; on the contrary, before the time of hellen, son of deucalion, no such appellation existed, but the country went by the names of the different tribes, in particular of the pelasgian. it was not till helen and his sons grew strong in phthiotis, and were invited as allies into the other cities, that one by one they gradually acquired from the connection the name hellenes; though a long time elapsed before that name could fasten itself upon all.

the best proof of this is furnished by homer. born long after the trojan war, he nowhere calls all of them by that name, nor indeed any of them except the followers of achilles from phthiotis, who were the original hellenes: in his poems they are called danaans, argives, and achaeans. he does not even use the term barbarian, probably because the hellenes had not yet been marked off from the rest of the world by one distinctive appellation.

it appears therefore, that the several hellenic communities, comprising not only those who first acquired the name, city by city, as they came to understand each other, but also those who assumed it afterwards as the name of the whole people, were before the trojan war prevented by their want of strength and the absence of mutual intercourse from displaying any collective action. it is only through the study of history that we can appreciate the freedom of the times, to know that a great price was paid for the children of this age to rome. hence it is why that, material gain is nothing short of an abomination and betrayal. all things are informed by history, there is nothing new under the sun.