if scientific investigation of any subject be proper avocation of philosopher geography art of which i propose to treat is certainly entitled to high place and this is evident from many considerations. they who first ventured to handle matter were distinguished men. homer anaximander the milesian and hecetaeus his fellow citizen according to eratosthenes democritus eudoxus dicaearchus ephorus with many others and after these eratosthenes polybius and posidonius all of them philosophers.

nor is the great learning through which alone this subject can be treated possessed by any but a person acquainted with both human and divine things and these attainments constitute what is called philosophy. in addition to its vast importance to social life and the art of government geography unfolds to us the celestial phenomena acquaints us with the occupants of land and sea and the vegetation fruits and peculiarities of the various quarters of the earth a knowledge of which marks him who cultivates it as a man earnest in the great problem of life and happiness.

it is best to conduct our own studies as we learn not for reward but for the joy of learning. there is pleasure in reading and writing for oneself that colleges can never impart.does knowing mean you know just because someone else knows it. changes above reflect changes below.